About Innovative Science, Inc.

Innovative Science Corporation specializes in the development of novel chemistry and associated reduction to practice services (bench scale R&D) relating to the polymer field. Services include improvements to existing processes/products as well as devising new matters of composition and or methods of manufacture.

For more information contact info@innovscience.com

Recent News

The Impact of Solutes on other Aqueous Polymerizations (11/15/2016)

In this article (click here) Dr. Lewis describes the beneficial impact that hydrophilic solutes could have on aqueous free radical polymerizations. The application of high salt content water as a polymerization medium for radical polymerizations could result in many unusual effects that lead to improvements otherwise not previously available to the polymer scientist. For example, increased polymer MW and initiator efficiency could result from using water containing high quantities of hydrophilic solutes. Use of water containing large amounts of salts might also allow for heterophase polymerization of hydrophilic monomers (e.g., acrylamide) that otherwise are typically preformed in hydrocarbon media.

Public Disclosure: Cationic Polymerization of Low Activity Olefins using Recyclable Ytterbium(III) Trifluoromethanesulfonate {Yb(OTf)3}. (11/09/2016)

For several years Dr. Lewis has been working on the development of cationic polymerization systems that use recyclable coinitiators. One such system is based upon ytterbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate {Yb(OTf)3}. As is discussed in the blog section of this website (and in the chemical literature), during his stint as a graduate student at U. Akron, an attempt was made by a professor "J.P. Kennedy" to force Lewis to falsify research data on the aqueous polymerization of isobutene (IB) using this coinitiator. Under such conditions (aqueous) Yb(OTf)3 exhibits no activity for the cationic polymerization of such low reactivity olefins. In contrast (and somewhat surprisingly) Dr. Lewis subsequently discovered a few years ago that this compound can induce the polymerization of IB when used in conjunction with select initiators. Many of the initiators which were described on this website as being useful for the polymerization of IB in conjunction with scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate are also useful in combination with the Yb congener. For example, possible classes of useful initiators include: carbocation synthons {e.g., cumyl-X (X = halogen, OH, OAc, N3, CN, etc.)}, halogens, nitroalkanes, and Brønsted acids {e.g., carboxylic acids, sulfuric acid, sulfonic acids (e.g., CF3SO3H), hydrogen halides, phosphoric acid, alcohols (e.g, methanol), and even traces (but not large amounts) of water. Moreover, when supported on a substrate that is capable of providing protons (e.g., aluminosilicates) such Yb(OTf)3 functionalized solids are active heterogeneous initiators for cationic polymerization of low reactivity olefins. BUT THE MOST INTERESTING THING IS THE Yb(OTf)3 APPEARS TO BE INFINITELY RECYCLABLE WITHOUT LOSS OF ACTIVITY!!!!

A full disclosure of this technology is forthcoming; however the following example(s) are illustrative of the potential of the technology. A polymerization reactor containing 0.100 g (1.16x10-4 mol) Yb(OTf)3 was cooled to -78 °C and filled with 11.0 g IB. The reactor was then equilibrated to 21 °C for 20 minutes and then 0.250 mL hexane containing 1x10-4 mol of methanol was injected. Polymerization was allowed to stir for a period of 20 hours after which the reactor contents were quenched with 20 mL hexanes containing 0.2 mL ethanol. Unreacted monomer was then allowed to flash off and the resultant polymer was dissolved in additional hexane. The organic layer was then extracted three times with deionized water, each washing being transferred to a tared collection vial. Both polymer solution and recaptured Yb(OTf)3 were dried at 70 °C for 4 days. Polymer yield = 78.67 %, M̅w = 16,300, M̅w/ M̅n = 1.61. Yield recovered Yb(OTf)3 = 0.1057 g (100 %). An identical polymerization was conducted with the recovered Yb(OTf)3 and gave rise to similar results.

Furthermore, it should be realized that Yb(OTf)3 could function as a useful, recyclable Lewis acid coinitiator for the living polymerization of olefins and possibly also analogous cationic ring opening polymerizations. For example, it might be feasible to impart living character by use of strategies such as the "common salt" technique wherein a triflate salt (e.g., LiOTf) is added to the polymerization mixture to shift the Winstein equilibrium in favor of dormant polymer chains as opposed to growing ionic species. Other methodologies well-known to the art of living cationic polymerizations that employ more traditional coinitiators (e.g., TiCl4) could also potentially be used with Yb(OTf)3 to manifest living character such as modification of the initiator system by purposeful inclusion of limited quantities of basic additives (e.g., N,N-dimethylacetamide). Even for polymerizations limited to non-living processes the systems based on Yb(OTf)3 can in theory be adjusted (e.g., via judicious choice of initiator) to produce valuable products such as highly-reactive grades of polyisobutene that possess predominantly exo-olefinic chain ends. IT SEEMS FEASIBLE THAT OTHER LANTHANIDE TRIFLATES WILL FUNCTION IN A SIMILAR MANNER TO Yb(OTf)3 AND EVEN THEIR HALIDE COUNTERPARTS (e.g., YbCl3) MAY PREFORM THE SAME WAY AS WELL…

Plausible New Compounds Based on Tris(pentafluorophenyl)amine and Potential Applications (11/07/2016)

Salts based on tris(pentafluorophenyl)amine could be: valuable electrolytes for batteries, components of ionic liquids, and acid catalysts. Such salts could include those where the anion is considered to be somewhat coordinating (e.g., F-) or those that meet the criteria of a weakly coordinating anion (WCA). Classes of compounds that fit the latter category (i.e., WCA) could include: complex anions derived from traditional Lewis acids (e.g., AlCl4-), anions based on perfluoroarylated Lewis acids (PFLAs), carboranes, triflate, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, and perfluoroalkoxy metallates (Chart 1).

Tris(pentafluorophenyl)ammonium salts paired with WCAs could be useful in coordination polymerization (Scheme 1) as well as in cationic polymerization (Scheme 2). In the former, the acidic salt could readily generate metallocenium ion by protolysis of an alkide ligand, whereas in the latter, the ammonium portion of the salt could initiate polymerization by protonation of monomer. Ammonium salts based on this amine could also function as a catalysts for: Friedel-Crafts alkylation/acylation, alkylation of olefins with alkanes (e.g., gasoline synthesis), isomerization, and cracking/dewaxing. Some of these compounds {based on N(C6F5)3} could also exhibit properties of ionic liquids. This might include not only ammonium derivatives of tris(pentafluorophenyl)amine paired with WCAs but also those bearing more coordinating anions.

The Synthesis and Uses of Tris(pentafluorophenyl)amine - Part 1 (11/01/2016)

Dr. Lewis has been spurred by several altruistic chemists from Germany to publically disclose technologies relating to PFLA compounds. In this series, a number of potential routes to the synthesis of tris(pentafluorophenyl)amine will be publically disclosed along with hypothetical analogs of these compounds and a list of possible uses for them. The first two plausible synthetic routes (click herepdf icon) involve aromatic substitution reactions between C6F5 precursors and either ammonia (Rxn 1) or sodium amide (Rxn 2), the latter which can be formed in situ. Future public disclosure series will cover: PFLA compounds, perfluoroalkoxyaluminate compounds, carboranes, and various other materials that can yield weakly coordinating anions.

Innovative Science Corp. Publically Discloses Technology for Immortal Aqueous Polymerization of Olefins (01/07/2016)

Innovative Science Corp. is pleased to announce public disclosure of yet another system capable of inducing aqueous cationic polymerization. The methodology is quite unique in that it induces immortal polymerization of a broad range of olefins ranging from low activity {e.g., isobutene (IB)} to high reactivity monomers {e.g., vinyl ethers (VEs)}. These initiator systems operate on a basic strategy of forming a super Brønsted acid (BA) that possesses lipophilic character, in situ (see Scheme 1 here).* This can be accomplished by conducting the polymerization in the presence of a BA and a compound that contains or can form a weakly coordinating anion (WCA). The BA is typically chosen to be one that by itself will not induce polymerization of the olefin being reacted; however, inclusion the WCA precursor leads to the production of a super BA which is hydrophobic in character and as such readily enters the monomer droplet to initiate polymerization (Scheme 1). A very broad range of BA/WCA precursor combinations exist (please see this PDF on the double, double salt strategy for examples).

Indications are that these catalyst systems are also useful for inducing other electrophilic transformations (e.g., Friedel-Crafts alkylation/acylation) in aqueous media. A detailed report of this work will be submitted for publication in 2016. It is also of interest that this strategy also appears to have a beneficial impact on polymerizations conducted under conditions similar to those used commercially, but without the need for overly stringent anhydrous conditions. For example, SnCl4/H2O typically is not useful for production of high MW polymers of IB; however, application of the double, double salt strategy appears to enhance polymer MW and polymerization rate.

This project is the result of a collaboration with Dr. Christopher A. Reed (emeritus Prof. Chem., U.C. Riverside) and Dr. R.T. Mathers (PSU).

* Some of these polymerizations pose extreme explosion risks! The reader is advised to use proper precautions when employing either concentrated BAs with neat monomer or polymerizations involving highly reactive monomers.

New Findings on Surfactant Influence on Ionic Reactions in Emulsion (11/16/15)

Recently Dr. Lewis has discovered evidence that the outcome of ionic reactions in emulsion can be dictated by the identity of the surfactant employed. The general mechanism operates on charge repulsion/attraction characteristics between the soap employed and the identity of the catalytic species. To our knowledge this is the first time that such behavior has been witnessed and rationalized in the polymer field and possibly the scientific community as a whole. For details please see this document.

Upcoming Review on "Green" Cationic Polymerizations (08/16/15)

Innovative Science Corp. is pleased to announce that an extensive review on advances made in the area of "green" cationic polymerizations is in the process of being published. The review, entitled "Moving Towards Greener Cationic Polymerizations" was coauthored by Dr. Lewis with a scheduled printing date of October, 2015 (Apple Academics) as part of the book "Green Polymers and Environmental Pollution Control" (Editor = Dr. Moayad N. Khalaf).

More Chicanery in the Cationic Polymerization Field? (08/16/15)

Approximately one year ago Dr. Lewis attempted to repeat experiments described by a collaboration of three well-known scientists in the polymer field. So far, all attempts to replicate these results have ended in failure. It is believed that this is nothing more than another fabrication attempt, similar to what Dr. Lewis experienced while working for Dr. "Joseph P. Kennedy" (please see blog series entitled "University of Akron/Professor Joseph P. Kennedy Expose). At this moment we will not go into detail as to who these people are but will say the following. Each of the three scientists have different nationalities and are prominent figures in the polymer science community. Furthermore, it would appear they were funded to a large degree by BASF. Intimate details of this topic will be provided during the release of information (before the end of 2016) related to a new catalytic aqueous cationic polymerization system that we recently developed. They are also scheduled to be published elsewhere.

High Performance Polyurethane Coatings from Soybean Oil (07/23/15)

Over the past several years we've been involved in collaborative projects with Dr. R.T. Mathers at PSU in regards to "green polymerizations". Dr. Mathers pioneered bicyclic anhydrides synthesized from renewable precursors (e.g., soybean oil) as building blocks for a number of polymers including polyesters and polyurethanes (PUs). Based on his previous experience with PUs, Dr. Lewis was invited to work on this project. A report on PUs derived from bicyclic anhydrides is provided here. These materials possess high renewable content and exhibit a number of interesting and potentially useful physical properties.

New Immortal Aqueous Cationic Polymerization System (04/20/15)

Innovative Science Corp. would like to announce one of three new aqueous cationic polymerization systems that it has developed within the past several years. Each system will be publically disclosed in order of increasing importance from a commercial standpoint as well as its impact to the field of polymer science. This notice serves as the first public disclosure of the least valuable, albeit still of great significance to the cationic polymerization field, of the three novel aqueous cationic polymerization systems recently invented. It has been discovered that aqueous solutions of heteropolyacids are effective at inducing immortal aqueous cationic polymerization of p-methoxystyrene (i.e., 4-vinylanisole {PMOS}) to high MWs (ca. 40 kg/mol) at ambient temperature and in many instances quantitative yields. A full report of these initiator systems which will appear in the peer-reviewed literature is forthcoming. At the present, this particular polymerization system appears to have limited application in the polymerization of PMOS; however, its application in the polymerization of other highly reactive olefins (e.g., p-hydroxystyrene) is currently under investigation.

Bio-based Replacements for Butyl Rubber (10-22-13)

Innovative Science Corp. in conjunction with the Mathers' research group has been conducting experimentation on cationic polymerizations where both monomers and solvents are derived from renewable materials. The focus of one study is the copolymerization of IB with 3-methylene cyclopentene as derived from metathesis of myrcene to make a bio-derived analog of butyl rubber. Other studies involve the polymerization of terpenes. All polymerizations are being conducted in solvents derived from plants. To our knowledge these represent the first truly sustainable cationic polymerizations.

Upcoming Journal Articles (04/26/13)

Several years ago Innovative Science Corp. (ISC) conducted a study on the polymerization of isobutene and other monomers using PFLAs where the central acidic element was a Group 13 congener other than B. The results of these studies show both tris(pentafluorophenyl)aluminum and gallium are superior coinitiators for the polymerization of IB in neat monomer and hydrocarbon solvents in comparison to either tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron or the chelating 1,2-C6F4[B(C6F5)2]2. This information is finally scheduled to be divulged in the peer review literature within the next couple months. Likewise, ISC will be reporting its results concerning scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate coinitiated polymerization of IB in the peer reviewed literature before the end of this year. Results using other recyclable Lewis acids will be reported at a future date.

Dr. Lewis Invents Third Aqueous Cationic Polymerization System

Not long ago, Dr. Lewis invented a third system for carbocationic polymerization in aqueous media. Currently, investigations have been limited to styrene; however, other monomers are under investigation. This system uses a methodology that is unique to this area of cationic polymerization and may provide for a system where the initiating components are recyclable. Interestingly, this methodology appears to have broad applications reaching outside the realm of polymerization. This area of study has developed into an ongoing collaboration with a very well-known chemist/professor out of California. Future details will be provided following the conclusion of exploratory investigations and the findings will eventually be transmitted in the patent and scientific literatures.

Paper on MAO Based Initiator Systems to be Published

Several years ago Innovative Science Corp. developed a novel system for the preparation of isobutene polymers in a more environmentally friendly, yet cost effective manner involving initiator systems based on methylaluminoxane (MAO). A summary of these studies was previously published in the last book chapter (Advances in Acid Mediated Polymerizations) co-authored by Dr. Lewis. This paper discloses additional findings made since the book chapter went into print. Future papers on this area are forthcoming and updates will be made in the recent news section of the website.

Second Book Chapter in Print

Recently Dr. Lewis and Professor R.T. Mathers coauthored a book chapter entitled "Advances in Acid Mediated Polymerization" contained in Renewable Polymers: Synthesis, Processing, and Technology which is now available for purchase. In this chapter Dr. Lewis provides the most detailed summary in print today on methods that have been developed for the polymerization of isobutene in a greener manner. This chapter discusses a number of projects devised and conducted by Dr. Lewis towards this goal in addition to interesting work on cationic polymerization of renewable monomers using unique chemistry developed by Professor Mathers.

Blog Added to Website

Dr. Lewis has added a blog to the company website. This blog will contain scientific updates of work done by Innovative Science Corp., commentary on science related products, and reviews of consumer products that scientists would have interest in. Finally, protions of the blog will be allocated to humor involving laboratory work, academia, etc...

Disclosure of Polymerization of Si-H functionalized Cyclic Siloxanes with PFLAs

Innovative Science Corporation has been investigating ring opening polymerization of cyclic siloxanes functionalized with Si-H functionalities in both aqueous media and anhydrous conditions using perfluoroarylated Lewis acids. The following documentpdf icon provides details of some of the preliminary results of this work.

Innovative Science Closes R&D Projects for 2012

Due to ongoing commitments we are no longer accepting additional R&D projects for hire, for the time being. Interested clients can continue to secure projects under a consultancy arrangement whereby Innovative Science Corp. supplies the client with the technical know-how to reduce our ideas to practice that are of interest to the customer. We apologize and suggest those interested in securing our services in the future contact us well in advance to avoid such inconveniences.

Disclosure of New Aqueous Cationic Polymerization Systems

Dr. Lewis recently invented another new method for the aqueous carbocationic polymerization of monomers. This is his second contribution to this unique form of polymerization having invented the only other known system capable of polymerizing isobutene under aqueous conditions. Please see the following document pdf icon for more information.

Second Book Chapter

Professor Robert T. Mathers and Dr. Lewis have recently constructed a new book chapter covering advances in the cationic olefin polymerization field. Dr. Lewis' section provides the most comprehensive and concise review of developments made in the field relating to polymerization of isobutene. The book chapter will be in print soon and updates will be provided when it goes into print.

First Book Chapter in Print

A book chapter coauthored by Dr. Lewis and Professor Mathers entitled "Monoterpenes as Polymerization Solvents and Monomers in Polymer Chemistry" has recently been published in "Green Polymerization Methods". This book chapter provides a comprehensive review methodologies used for preparation of terpenic resins as well as application of terpenes as renewable solvents for polymerization of α-olefins.

Perfluoroarylated Lewis acids

Innovative science Corp. will resume manufacturing polymerization activators on a very limited scale for interested polyolefin manufacturers that have previous requests. Overrun compounds will sold to interested researchers and a posting will be made under the recent news section when they are available.

Innovative Science Closing All Open Military Projects For Hire

Innovative Science will be closing all open military application projects for hire. As of February 2011 our focus will be strictly on commercial polymer projects. Please note that a number of projects under the investment section have already been secured. One of these projects has generated a number of new methods of manufacture for IB polymers, one yielding MWs 1.5 times that of gamma radiation! These technologies will eventually be disclosed publicly. Dr. Lewis is in the process of co-authoring another book chapter and details will be forthcoming. Finally, we have invented a new form of aqueous carbocationic olefin polymerization. This will be publically disclosed prior to 2012.

Dr. Lewis' Contributions to the Cationic Polymerization Field

  1. Invented the only known aqueous polymerization system for isobutylene.
  2. Discovered that sterically hindered pyridines are capable of reacting with carbocations when paired with weakly coordinating anions.
  3. Suggested important revisions to the complex counteranion theory.
  4. Recently invented a highly active heterogeneous polymerization system for isobutylene polymers that overcomes limitations inherent in previously developed polymerization systems.*
  5. Gathered evidence of initiation by silylium ions generated by non-metathesis chemistry.*

* To be published.

Book Chapter

Recently Dr. Lewis coauthored a book chapter on green polymerizations involving the use of terpenes with Professor Robert T. Mathers. It will appear in a book entitled Green Polymerization Methods: Renewable Starting Materials, Catalysis and Waste Reduction. Dr. Lewis' section focuses on cationic polymerization of terpenic monomers and deciphers much of the data present in the scientific and patent literature on this topic.

Isobutylene Polymerization Results to be Published

Initial results for a new green polymerization system with commercial utility that our research group has devised will be published in a scientific peer reviewed journal following submission of revisions. Once accepted an updated posting will be made on this website.

New Research Study

Qian Liu Mr. Qian Liu recently began an apprenticeship with Innovative Science Corporation. Mr. Liu holds a BS degree in Polymer Science from Wuhan University of Technology. Currently he is studying cationic polymerization of alkenes and air sensitive manipulations and will return to China following the conclusion of his projects to pursue an advanced degree in polymer science.

Public Disclosure of New Sporting Ammunition

Innovative Science Corporation publically discloses novel polymer tipped, saboted ammunition for use in sporting applications. Click here to read more...pdf icon

Novel Ammunition Update

Recently Innovative Science Corporation began preliminary testing of a new type of centerfire ammunition. Initial tests indicate that our design provides for much higher velocities than those currently available today. This new form of ammunition will provide greater penetration and flatter trajectories than currently available for all forms of standard ammunition. Please check our site frequently for future updates.

Round Identification Velocitya (fps)
Standard Reloads 1599
Hornady LeveRevolution® 1878
New Small Arms Ammuntionb 2148

aRepresents an average for 3 rounds as measured using a Shooting Chrony® Beta Master.
b1st generation using moderate powder loads and flat pointed bullets.

Preliminary Data: High Temperature Polymerization of Isobutylene

Recently Innovative Science Corporation devised a series of polymerization systems that yield high MW isobutylene based polymers at high reaction temperatures. Initial data (Table 1) indicates that one of the recently developed polymerization systems is capable of producing high molecular polymers at 0°C. Additional systems appear to be capable of producing high molecular weight polymers at ambient reaction temperatures. Further updates will be made as data becomes available.

Table 1 Image

Catalyst Component Sales on Hold

Dear Customer:

We regret that at the present moment we must suspend sales of catalyst components during August 2008. Our Innovative Technology dry box has been experiencing numerous mechanical difficulties that prevent us from offering air sensitive compounds at this moment. We expect to resume sales of these compounds in the September to October 2008 time frame. Thank you for your patience and understanding.

New Polymerization System Update

Innovative Science, Inc. is currently developing a cost effective yet environmentally friendly method for making commercially important isobutylene containing polymers. Click here to read more… pdf icon

Patent Update

Innovative Science, Inc. now has a patent in the pending stage covering new compositions of matter (perfluoroarylated Lewis acids) and new methods of manufacture.

New Small Arms Ammunition

Innovative Science, Inc. is in the process of developing a new type of centerfire ammunition. Please go to the investment opportunities section to read more.

Summer Intern

Chao Kuo Image

Innovative Science, Inc. was delighted to have Mr. Chao Kuo serve as an intern during the summer of 2007. Mr. Kuo is a native of Wu Han, China and is currently studying Environmental Science. While serving as an intern Mr. Kuo learned a number of techniques ranging from general methods of purification (e.g. recrystallization) to complex manipulations (e.g. Schlenk techniques).

Delays in Product Inventory

Due to recent problems related to key pieces of laboratory equipment inventory of a number of our products will be severally limited. This situation will change when the OEM ships items currently on backorder sometime during the November 2007 timeframe.

Innovative Science, Inc. visits Innovator of Green Polymerization Systems

Professor Mathers Image

Innovative Science, Inc. would like to thank Professor Mathers for a recent invitation to visit with him and learn about work he is conducting in the area of green polymerization systems. For those who have interest in this subject area you may contact him through his webpage (http://www.personal.psu.edu/rtm11/). Innovative Science, Inc. would like to extend congratulations to Professor Mathers for recent inventions that he has made in the area of green polymerizations.

Innovative Science, Inc. Invents New Polymerization Systems

Dr. Lewis has recently invented some new, useful and very novel polymerization systems. Research is currently ongoing and a patent application is in progress. Additional details will be released in 2008.