University of Akron/Professor Joseph P. Kennedy Expose, Part 26 (New Information)


Over the past several years, this author has uncovered additional examples of where Dr. “Joseph P. Kennedy”, while at U. Akron and Standard Oil (i.e., Esso Corp.), has stolen inventions from other scientists in the polymer field.  Even more disturbing is the disinformation that he has promulgated in the chemical literature.  Due to other work, the author has not had time to update this blog series.  Prior to getting into new information, a brief recap of important findings detailed in the previous 25 parts of this blog series is provided.

Here are some of the main findings detailed in the parts 1-25.

  1. Dr. “Joseph P. Kennedy” has used no less than 5 different aliases over the past ~ 70 or so years.  It is this author’s belief that the “Kennedy” name is derived from the stolen identity of another individual who was Hungarian and that the true name of Dr. “J.P. Kennedy” will never be known.  IT SHOULD BE OBVIOUS TO THE READER THAT STOLEN IDENTITIES AND ALIASES ARE THE PERVIEW OF THE CRIMINAL.
  2. A concerted effort was made to prevent this author from uncovering additional information contained in Hungary and Canada about this individual.  This indicates the governments of these countries are hiding something significant about “Kennedy”.
  3. “Kennedy” purposefully falsified a lab accident form so that he would not be held responsible for an accident that almost permanently destroyed this author’s right hand.
  4. “Kennedy” ran an unsafe laboratory facility at U. Akron, operated improper chemical storage, and furthermore allowed dangerous handling techniques to be practiced in his group.  The former led to a severe explosion which almost killed this author whereas the latter resulted in permanent damage to this author’s lungs.
  5. “Kennedy” orchestrated an elaborate attempt to falsify research on Yb(OTf)3 coinitiated aqueous polymerization of isobutene (IB).  This led to the dismissal of this author from the “Kennedy” research group when the author refused to falsify data on “Kennedy’s” request.
  6. “Kennedy” has stolen ideas and theories for numerous students (e.g., this author, P.V. Kurian), other professors (e.g., Prof. Plesch, Prof. DeSimone), and professional chemists (e.g., Dr. Hansjorg Sinn, Dr. Ott).  As will be seen below, the extent of this stealing encompasses no less than 15-20 % (and probably much more) of all patents bearing the “Kennedy” name.

Many Unanswered Questions Remain

Much of this is touched upon in previous sections of this blog series, but it warrants being discussed a second time.  Is the individual, who has operated under false names for approximately 70 years, a victim of the Nazis?  My best guess is the answer is no, for several reasons.  First, we have conflicting information supplied by no other than “Kennedy” himself (see part 22 of this blog series) [1,2].  We are led to believe the Nazis killed his father and yet on the other hand we are led to believe that the Russians imprisoned his mother.  This begs the question, why didn’t the Nazis imprison both “Kennedy” and his mother, if indeed his father was an enemy of the Germans?  It is well-known that the Nazis were in the habit of removing entire families and not limiting their wrath to a single individual.  Anyone who has studied history also realizes that the main leaders of the Soviet Union were all Jewish and that they despised the Nazis.  So why would the Russians imprison his mother if indeed the “Kennedy” family were considered enemies of the Nazis?

From this, some very interesting questions emerge.  Was the imprisonment (if it indeed happened) of “Kennedy’s” mother because his father was a Nazi or a collaborator to them?  I suspected something was astray during my stint in the “Kennedy” lab when “Kennedy” said to Dr. S. Yankovski (in my presence), “You know Stas, Stalin wasn’t a bad guy, he did many good things.”1  I wondered, why someone would give praise to a mass murderer that made Hitler look minor by comparison?  Furthermore, if “Kennedy’s” mother was imprisoned by the Russians, why would he extol Stalin, the person who supposedly imprisoned her?  None of these facts made any sense.

While working in his lab, this author was curious as to if “Kennedy” was Jewish since he claimed to be a victim of the Nazis?  In order to shed light on this question I decided to do some probing.  While in a meeting with “Kennedy”, this author informed him that his grandfather always kept the “Sabbath” on Saturdays.  This was met with a, “What!” and the expression on “Kennedy’s” face was not one of joy.  So the author went no further with this test.  Then we have “Kennedy’s” own historical claiming him to be of bourgeois class and of modest financial background [1,2].2  This conflicts with his ability to pass through the iron curtain (from Hungary to Vienna), a wall so impervious that it held hundreds of millions of people captive in the Soviet system.  For those who don’t know, Austria was highly fortified to prevent any such influx of people from “Soviet” territories.  Instead, this latter fact implies that “Kennedy’s” family was quite wealthy and had significant contacts in countries formerly lorded over by the Nazis so that a combination of money and influence got him through an otherwise impenetrable wall.  It is interesting to note that “Kennedy”, despite being close to military age during the latter stages of WWII, apparently avoided both imprisonment by the Nazis and conscription into the Hungarian army, which fought as partners with the Nazis.  This again suggests that he was somehow quite affluent and well-connected to the Nazi party.

Several other unusual factoids exist.  First, “Kennedy” is quite fluent in German in both speech and reading.  None of the other Hungarian scientists that this author interacted with in “Kennedy’s” lab had fluency in the German language.  Second, someone with modest financial resources, such as “Kennedy” claims to be, would not have had access to the schooling needed to become fluent in a second language, especially technical German used in scientific papers.  Third, “Kennedy” supposedly worked for Hoechst Celanese, which was the largest of the companies that formed I.G. Farben, the chemical conglomerate that provided the lion’s share of money that got Hitler elected in Germany [3,4].  Why would someone who had been hurt by the Nazis be willing (and proud) to work for a company that was directly responsible for helping Hitler rise to power?  Fourth, “Kennedy” went to work for Standard Oil, another company that was directly tied to the Nazis, primarily via the I.G. Farben link.  During this time (at Standard Oil) he somehow was chosen to live in Japan and collaborate with scientists of the former Japanese Empire (and main partners to the Nazis).  These facts seem to indicate that “Kennedy” may have had some ties to the Nazi scientific community or their elite apparatus and definitely do not bode well for his story that his family was somehow victimized by the Germans during WWII.

Before concluding this section, I want to point out that I suspect the “Kennedy” narrative was concocted as a reverse projection technique in order to prevent people from learning the true history of this individual.  Reverse projection is a well-known method used by politicians, criminals, and in general, people who have a predilection towards psychopathic behavior.  It is meant to obfuscate the truth by making a guilty individual appear as if he/she is the victim of a crime that they actually perpetrated.  THE SAD TRUTH IS THIS.  SINCE THE ONLY FACTUAL DOCUMENTS WE HAVE ON THIS PERSON WERE SUPPLIED/FOUND BY THIS AUTHOR WE WILL NEVER BE ABLE TO FULLY DISCERN: WHO THIS PERSON IS, HOW EXTENSIVE HIS CRIMES ARE, AND PRECISELY WHY HE HAS BEEN PROTECTED FOR ALL THESE YEARS FROM CRIMINAL PROSECUTION!  In conclusion, this author cannot determine at this juncture as to what “Kennedy’s” ties (if any) are to the Nazis.  If indeed he is somehow a victim, it is this author’s opinion that “Kennedy’s” victimhood is more along the lines of a George Soros, a person who sold out his own people to the Nazis for material gain.

Some New Unpleasant Discoveries Concerning “Kennedy”

During the construction of this author’s textbook, the author continually kept coming across numerous instances where “Kennedy” had stolen ideas/inventions from others.  In addition, it became apparent that in many instances Dr. “Kennedy” hitched his wagon to leading scientists, who specialized in niche areas within the cationic polymerization community, in order to promulgate the myth that “Kennedy” was an all-knowing expert.  Below are provided only few examples of the treasure trove of intellectual thievery by Dr. “Kennedy”.

More Patents Stolen by “Kennedy”

By this author’s estimate, ~100 % of patents issued by Esso Corp. that list “Kennedy” as the sole inventor are stolen from other scientists.  Likewise, many publications and patents that came out while “Kennedy” was at U. Akron are in fact stolen from other researchers.  Below I list only a sampling of blatant examples of where “Kennedy” has stolen ideas from other chemists.

Stolen Patents on Terpenic Resins and Copolymers

As had been detailed earlier (see blog posting 21 of this series), when “Kennedy” went to U. Akron one of the first inventions he patented was on the copolymerization of β-pinene with isobutene [5,6].  The problem is that the work was nothing more than a carbon copy of copolymers made thirty years prior by none other than Emil Ott, an expert in the field of terpenic resins, among other topics [7].  Ott was prominent enough in the polymer field that he was eulogized by none other than Herman Mark [8].  Also mentioned in this previous blog posting, “Kennedy” touted his stolen invention as producing a novel copolymer that had unforeseen ozone resistance.  The only problem is that Ott recognized this as well in his original patent and the use of monomers that give rise to cyclic unsaturated repeat units (e.g., cyclopentadiene) for synthesis of ozone resistant copolymers of isobutene was well-known since the late 1940s [9-15].

During his research, this author uncovered an even more egregious example of “Kennedy’s” stealing, that of an invention by none other A.L. RummelsburgAnyone who has studied terpenic resins will be quite familiar with Rummelsburg as he was one of the most accomplished in the field.  In 1960, Rummelsburg patented the use of various alkylaluminum halides for the polymerization of β-pinene, one being EtAlCl2 [16].  In his patent, Rummelsburg made mention of the fact that such Lewis acids generated very high MW poly(β-pinene) that had not been obtainable with other chemical initiators.  In 1992, Keszler and “Kennedy” reported the “first” polymerization of β-pinene to high molecular polymer using EtAlCl2 [17].  Keszler and “Kennedy” never bothered to mention that Rummelsburg was the first to do this work.  It is sad to think that this intellectual burglary by “Kennedy” has gone unchallenged for so many years.

Stolen Patents on Aluminum Alkyl Based Initiator Systems

An even more blatant theft of inventions is provided in a British patent filed in 1972 under “Kennedy’s” name for work he did while at Esso Corp. [18].  As hard as it might seem to the reader, this patent contains stolen inventions from three previous patents, two of which had been issued to Esso 10-12 years prior, and two journal articles!  In 1960 and 1962, researchers at Esso Corp. noted that a variety of Lewis acids halides (HgCl2, BeCl2, ZnCl2, ZnBr2, CdCl2, CaCl2, BF3, BCl3, BBr3, AlCl3, AlBr3, AlI3, GaCl3, TiCl4, TiBr4, ZrCl4, ZrBr4, SnCl4, SnBr4, SbCl3, SbCl5, MoCl5, BiCl3, FeCl3, and UCl4) in combination with trialkylaluminums or dialkylaluminum halides were useful for the preparation of high MW polymers at elevated T [19,20].  Likewise, Tanaka et al. also patented similar chemistry wherein organoaluminum compounds were reacted with SnCl4 to make initiator systems useful for the preparation of IB based polymers [21].  Even in the peer reviewed literature, similar initiator systems are described well before “Kennedy’s” patent [22,23].  “Kennedy’s” 1972 patent [18] uses identical chemistry to that described in the aforementioned patents and papers.

As pointed out earlier, “Kennedy” (while at Esso) [24] stole chemistry from H. Sinn [25] in regards to initiator systems derived from alkylaluminum compounds and Brønsted acids (see part 21 of this series).  What this author did not point out is that “Kennedy” did the same thing for initiator systems derived from alkylaluminum compounds and halogens [26,27].  As it turns out, Cesca and coworkers were the first to devise this chemistry [28-35].  In conclusion, if the reader spends a small amount of time studying the chemical literature they will find that in almost all instances, when it comes to “Kennedy” patents on the use of alkylaluminum compounds for polymerization, the initiator systems in question were actually devised by other scientists.

Unfortunately for Dr. “Kennedy” this author has uncovered one too many new instances of where “Kennedy” has stolen ideas/inventions from others and copied or closely mimicked work previously reported by other scientists.  Only a few of these are detailed below.  It is this author’s belief that “Kennedy” will be recorded in history as being the most fraudulent scientist to have operated in the polymer field since its inception.

A False Narrative on Isomerization Polymerization Concocted by “Kennedy”

In the book co-written by “Kennedy” and Marechal [36],3 “Kennedy” goes on ad nauseam claiming to have been the leading scientist in the area of isomerization polymerization while at Standard Oil (i.e., Esso Corp.).  This claim is made for a relatively large number of such polymerizations; however, when I dug into the chemical literature I found this was false.  “Kennedy” used his book to cover up the inconvenient fact that in almost every single case, he had essentially been playing catch-up to other chemists, and in most instances simply replicated their work!  To illustrate this I have made a list of olefins (below this paragraph), where “Kennedy” falsely claims to have been the first to do isomerization polymerization of, and then reference the actual scientists who were the true initial investigators.

Olefin Original Investigators Ref.
3-Methyl-1-Butene Edwards et al. [37-39]
3,3-Dimethyl-1-Butene Edwards et al. [38]
3,3-Dimethyl-1-Butene Meier [40]
Vinylcyclohexane Ketley et al. [41]

The most damning revelation is the entire field of cationic isomerization polymerizations was in essence started by Edwards et al. [37-39].  After these original disclosures, Edwards then went to work at Esso where he patented some of his isomerization polymerizations during the same time that “Kennedy” was also an Esso employee.  With the exception of one monomer (2,6-norbornadiene) [42] “Kennedy” apparently did nothing of true significance and failed to report the truth of events in his book, misleading people to believe he was the go to guy on this research topic.


Additional Examples of Parasitizing by “Kennedy”

“Kennedy” has a long history of parasitizing off of others within the polymer community, but it would appear that this fact is glanced over by many.  I wanted to comment on just a couple, of many, examples where he was able to insert his name into publications, but in fact contributed little or no work/ideas of his own.  Each of these are covered separately below and only represent a fraction of this type of behavior.  It is this author’s belief that further research of the chemical literature will uncover many more instances of this behavior and outright stealing from others.

Radiation Induced Polymerization

If one is to peruse the literature on radiation induced polymerization they will see that a Dr. F. Williams was involved heavily in this area of research from its very beginnings [43-49].  Williams studied the polymerization of a number of olefins by gamma radiation including isobutene.  Once “Kennedy” had become established at U. Akron, two publications bearing his name along with Williams and Shinkawa appeared in the literature [50,51].  A review of Williams’ prior publications will show that no new ideas/concepts were introduced during the collaborative studies with “Kennedy”.  Instead, a continuation of theories, in part attributed to work that Williams was involved in many years prior, is further developed.  It furthermore would appear that all experimental work for these two papers was conducted by Williams and Shinkawa.

Graft and Block Copolymerizations

Graft and block copolymers is another area where “Kennedy” closely mimicked work that was previously published by other researchers.  In 1973, Jolivet and Peyrot reported the synthesis of poly(isobutene-b-styrene) wherein a PIB bearing a benzyl end-group was subjected to chloromethylation and then subsequently ionized with diethylaluminum chloride to induce polymerization of styrene [52,53].  A few years later, “Kennedy” and Melby used a similar procedure to prepare the same block copolymer [54].  A similar scenario occurred in the area of cationic grafting.  In 1958, Plesch proposed that polymers containing ionizable substituents could be reacted with a Lewis acid to form a carbocation on the polymer chain from which branches could be grown [55].  This was demonstrated by Plesch, where styrene was grafted from poly(vinyl chloride-co-vinylidene chloride), wherein aluminum chloride was the Lewis acid used to ionize Cl groups on the parent copolymer’s backbone.  Many years later, “Kennedy” replicated Plesch’s work; however, this time using diethylaluminum chloride as the ionizing Lewis acid [53,56].

The Unusual Reactivity of Carbocations Paired with WCAs

Around 2007, this author began to draft a paper in order to disseminate findings he made at U. Akron [57], regarding the degradation of carbocations by sterically hindered pyridines (SHPs).  During his stint in the Collin’s lab, this author discovered that when carbocations were paired with weakly coordinating anions (WCAs) they became susceptible to abstraction of β-H+ by SHPs.  This author speculated, that the WCA led to increased separation between ions, and this allowed for close approach of the bulky base so that it could access portions of the cation, which were typically blocked by more conventional, stronger coordinating anions.

This journal article draft led to further, follow-up work at U. Akron [58,59], the bulk of the WCA precursor being supplied from stocks made at this author’s first company, Stewart’s Technologies LLC.4  Since most of the follow-up experimental work involved NMR spectroscopic studies conducted at U. Akron, this author was not named as the lead author on one of these articles [58].  Much to the dismay of this author, “Kennedy” forced his name onto one of these publications, and this author was unable to prevent this from occurring as he was not listed as the lead author.  Proper credit for this author’s original discovery is not provided in publications [58,59] made following his graduation from U. Akron.

Who is Watching the Hen House?

The chemical literature is another area of contention when it comes to “Kennedy”.  This is one that is more difficult to obtain conclusive evidence of monkey business; however, the indications are quite strong that less than above board practices were common when it comes to “Kennedy” publications.  Here, this author makes a few salient points and asks the reader to come to their own conclusions.  This author also strongly urges the reader to verify not only the information provided here but to also do their own research into these matters.

It is hard to imagine, but a highly disturbing trend is that approximately 20 % of all publications covering work at U. Akron that were authored by “Kennedy”, were published in Polymer Bulletin.  Who was the founding editor of this journal?  “Kennedy” of course.  Is it a coincidence that one out of every five “Kennedy” publications appeared in this periodical?  Surely, there is no conflict of interest there?  Obviously, when the fox watches the hen house, there will be a high rate of attrition in the barn yard.  It is sad to think that with all the many journals from which polymer scientists can choose to publish in that one out of every five papers to issue from the “Kennedy” group appeared in Polymer Bulletin.


In closing, it is this author’s opinion that should anyone want a super condensed summary of “Kennedy’s” scientific achievements it is recommended that they listen to the song entitled ”Lobachevsky” by Tom Lehrer.


  1. Please see blog posting 9 of this series.
  2. It should be no surprise that “fake news” is being promulgated by the “Plain Dealer”.
  3. It would appear that “Kennedy’s” first two books [36,60] have drawn heavily from Plesch’s earlier text book [61] on the subject of cationic polymerization, without due credit having been given to the latter scientist.
  4. In one of these papers [59], which was not written by this author, a number of falsehoods are put forth.  One is that the original discovery of the decomposition of 1,2-C6F4[B(C6F5)2]2 was made at U. Calgary.  In point of fact, the discovery was made by this author at U. Akron [57,62].  In both papers, which followed the graduation of this author, [58,59] no reference was made to the fact that this author had donated gram quantities of the chelating diborane 1,2-C6F4[B(C6F5)2]2 that was used in this research.  Another falsehood put forth [59], is “Kennedy” was responsible for this author’s first invention, which is in complete contradiction to a statement provided by this author’s research advisor, upon the latter’s departure from U. Akron (see part 16 of this blog series).  Other commentary within one paper is questionable [59], leading this author to wonder if follow-up polymerizations were actually conducted at U. Akron after his graduation [59].  For example, it is claimed that stock solutions of 1,2-C6F4[B(C6F5)2]2 are originally yellow and turn clear upon injection into an aqueous suspension of IB [59].  This is incorrect.  Charges of IB turn (briefly) yellow upon injection of a colorless solution of this diborane due to ion formation [57].


(1) Smith, R. L. Joseph Kennedy, Akron’s King of Polymers, proves inventors are young at heart. The Plain Dealer, September 6, 2012.

(2) Peetz, R. Visions in Macromolecular Engineering. The Maurice Morton Institute of Polymer Science, U. Akron, June 2, 2003.

(3) Jeffreys, D. Hell’s Cartel: I.G. Farben And The Making Of Hitler’s War Machine; Henry Holt and Company: N.Y., N.Y., 2008; pp 1-485.

(4) Borkin, J. The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben;  The Free Press: NY, 1978.

(5) Kennedy, J. P.; Chou, T. M. Process for the Preparation of Isobutylene/Beta-Pinene Copolymers U.S. Patent 3923759, 1975.

(6) Kennedy, J. P.; Chou, T. Poly(isobutylene-co-b-Pinene) a New Sulfur Vulcanizable, Ozone Resistant Elastomer by Cationic Isomerization Copolymerization Adv. Polym. Sci. 1976, 21, 1-39.

(7) Ott, E. Terpene Resins U.S. Patent 2373706, 1945.

(8) Mark, H. Emil Ott J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 1964, 2, 3365-3367.

(9) Sparks, W. J.; Thomas, R. M. Cyclodiene Isobutylene Copolymers U.S. Patent 2577822, 1951.

(10) Sparks, W. J.; Thomas, R. M. Olefin-Cyclodiene-Divinylbenzene Tripolymer and Preparation Thereof U.S. Patent 2626940, 1953.

(11) Minckler, L. S., Jr.; Cottle, D. L.; Lemiszka, T. Novel Tripolymers of Isobutylene, a Cyclodiene, and Isoprene U.S. Patent 3080337, 1963.

(12) Small, A. B.; Minckler, L. S., Jr. Tetrapolymer which Comprises Isobutylene, Isoprene, Cyclopentadiene and Divinylbenzene U.S. Patent 3239495, 1966.

(13) Thaler, W. A.; Buckley, D. J. S. High-Molecular-Weight, High-Unsaturation Copolymers of Isobutylene and Conjugated Dienes. I. Synthesis Rubber Chem. Technol. 1976, 49, 960-966.

(14) Kennedy, J. P.; Baldwin, F. P. Process for Polymerization of Cationically Polymerizable Monomers U.S. Patent 3560458, 1971.

(15) Thaler, W. A.; Buckley, D. J., Sr.; Kennedy, J. P. Process for the Preparation of High Molecular Weight, High Unsaturation Isobutylene-Conjugated Diene Copolymers US Patent 3856763, 1974.

(16) Rummelsburg, A. L. Polymerization of b-Pinene U.S. Patent 2932631, 1960.

(17) Keszler, B.; Kennedy, J. P. Synthesis of High Molecular Weight Poly(B-Pinene) Adv. Polym. Sci. 1992, 100, 1-9.

(18) Esso Research and Engineering Company Cationic Olefins-Polymerization and a Catalyst System Therefor GB Patent 1290908, 1972.

(19) Minckler, L. S.; Strohmayer, H. F.; Stogryn, E. L.; Argabright, P. A. Propylene Polymers Oils U.S. Patent 2935542, 1960.

(20) Strohmayer, H. F.; Minckler, L. S., Jr.; Simko, J. P., Jr.; Stogryn, E. L. Activated Friedel-Crafts Catalysts for Polymerization U.S. Patent 3066123, 1962.

(21) Tanaka, S.; Nakamura, A.; Kubo, E. Process for the Manufacture of Polymers and Copolymers of Isobutylene US Patent 3324094, 1967.

(22) Takeda, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Fueno, T.; Furukawa, J. Ionic Properties of the Triethylaluminum and Stannic Cloride System as Stereospecific Polymerization Catalyst for Vinyl Isobutyl Ether Makromol. Chem. 1964, 76, 209-229.

(23) Takeda, Y.; Hayakawa, Y.; Fueno, T.; Furukawa, J. Studies on the Mechanism of the Stereospecific Polymerization. Asymmetric-induction Polymerization of Benzofuran by Use of Optically Active Organo-stannic Compounds Makromol. Chem. 1965, 83(1), 234-243.

(24) Kennedy, J. P. Butyl Rubber Catalyst System Utilizing AlR2X with an HX Promoter U.S. Patent 3349065, 1967.

(25) Sinn, H. J.; Winter, H.; Tirpitz, W. V. Polymerisations- und Isomerisierungsaktivitat von Aluminiumtrialkyl, Alkylaluminiumhalogeniden und Ziegler-Mischkatalysatoren Makromol. Chem. 1961, 48, 59-71.

(26) Kennedy, J. P. Cationic Polymerization Catalyst U.S. Patent 4029866, 1977.

(27) Kennedy, J. P. Cationic Polymerization Catalyst U.S. Patent 4081590, 1978.

(28) Baccaredda, M.; Giusti, P.; Priola, A.; Cesca, S. Catalysts Suitable for use in the Polymerization of Unsaturated Compounds; The Polymerization Processes Employing such Catalysts and Products Obtained by the Processes GB Patent 1362295, 1974.

(29) Priola, A.; Ferraris, G.; Maina, M.; Giusti, P. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 1 Introduction, Experimental Methods and Preliminary Results Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1975, 176(8), 2271-2288.

(30) Priola, A.; Cesca, S.; Ferraris, G.; Maina, M. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 2 The Interactions of the Reactants in the Absence of Polymerization Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1975, 176(8), 2289-2302.

(31) Giusti, P.; Priola, A.; Magagnini, P. L.; Narducci, P. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 3 Polymerization and Copolymerization of Isobutene Initiated by Diethylaluminum Iodide and Iodine Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1975, 176(8), 2303-2317.

(32) Cesca, S.; Giusti, P.; Magagnini, P. L.; Priola, A. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 4 Polymerization of Isobutene Initiated by Diethylaluminum Chloride and Chlorine Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1975, 176(8), 2319-2337.

(33) Cesca, S.; Priola, A.; Bruzzone, M.; Ferraris, G.; Giusti, P. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 5 Copolymerization of Isobutene and Isoprene Catalyzed by Diethylaluminum Chloride and Chlorine Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1975, 176(8), 2339-2358.

(34) Maina, M. D.; Cesca, S.; Giusti, P.; Ferraris, G.; Magagnini, P. L. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 6 Comparison with Isobutene Polymerization initiated by Ethylaluminum Dichloride or Aluminum Trichloride Macromol. Chem. Phys. 1977, 178(8), 2223-2234.

(35) Magagnini, P. L.; Cesca, S.; Giusti, P.; Priola, A.; Maina, M. D. Studies on Polymerizations Initiated by Syncatalytic Systems Based on Aluminum Organic Compounds, 7 Reaction Mechansims Makromol. Chem. 1977, 178(8), 2235-2248.

(36) Kennedy , J. P.; Marechal, E. Carbocationic Polymerization; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1982; pp 1-510.

(37) Edwards, W. R.; Chamberlain, N. F. Carbonium Ion Rearrangement in the Cationic Polymerization of Branched Alpha Olefins Paper Presented at 142nd National ACS Meeting Held in Atlantic City, September 9-14 1962, 3, 2.

(38) Edwards, W. R.; Chamberlain, N. F. Carbonium Ion Rearrangement in the Cationic Polymerization of Branched Alpha Olefins J. Polym. Sci., Part A 1963, 1, 2299-2308.

(39) Edwards, W. R. Polymer U.S. Patent 3299022, 1967.

(40) Meier, R. L. The Polymerization of Olefins with Friedel-Crafts Catalysts. J. Chem. Soc. 1950, 3656-3671.

(41) Ketley, A. D.; Ehrig, R. J. Polymers Containing the Cyclopropyl and Cyclohexyl Groups J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 1964, 2, 4461-4474.

(42) Kennedy, J. P.; Hinlicky, J. A. Cationic Transannular Polymerization of Norbornadiene Polymer 1965, 6(3), 133-140.

(43) Adur, A. M.; Williams, F. Radiation-Induced Cationic Polymerization of b-Pinene J. Polym. Sci: Polym. Chem. Ed. 1981, 19, 669-678.

(44) Bonin, M. A.; Busler, W. R.; Williams, F. The Polymerization of Cyclopentadiene by Free Ions. Determination of the Propagation Rate Constant. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1965, 87(2), 199-207.

(45) Bonin, M. A.; Calvert, M. L.; Miller, W. L.; Williams, F. Evidence for an Ionic Mechanism in the Radiation Induced Polymerization of Isobutyl Vinyl Ether J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Lett. 1964, 2, 143-149.

(46) Hubmann, E.; Taylor, R. B.; Williams, F. Kinetics of Radiation-Induced Cationic Polymerization Propagation Rate Constant for a-Methylstyrene Trans. Faraday Soc. 1966, 62, 88-96.

(47) Taylor, A. R.; Williams, F. Kinetics of Ionic Processes in the Radiolysis of Liquids. V. Cationic Polymerization of Isobutylene under Anhydrous Conditions. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1969, 91(14), 3728-3732.

(48) Taylor, R. B.; Williams, F. On the Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Isobutylene under Anhydrous Conditions and the Effect of Solid Additives J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1967, 89(24), 6359-6360.

(49) Williams, F.; Hayashi, K.; Ueno, K.; Hayashi, K.; Okamura, S. Radiation-Induced Polymerization by Free Ions Part 3.-Rate Constants for Cationic Polymerization. Trans. Faraday Soc. 1967, 63, 1501-1511.

(50) Williams, F.; Shinkawa, A.; Kennedy, J. P. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of isobutylene-isoprene systems: advantages and disadvantages compared to catalytic initiation. J. Polym. Sci., Part C.: Polym. Symp. 1976, 56, 421-430.

(51) Kennedy, J. P.; Shinkawa, A.; Williams, F. Fundamental Studies on Cationic Polymerizations: Molecular Weights and Molecular Weight Distributions of Polyisobutylenes Produced by γ-Irradiation (Free Ions) and Chemical Catalysis (Ion Pairs). J. Polym Sci., Part A-1 1971, 9, 1551-1561.

(52) Jolivet, Y.; Peyrot, J. Prepr. Intern. Symp. Cationic Polymerization. 1973, Rouen (France), Paper C18.

(53) Gandini, A.; Cheradame, H. Cationic Polymerisation: Initiation Processes with Alkenyl Monomers. Adv. Polym. Sci. 1980, 34-35, 1-284.

(54) Kennedy, J. P.; Melby, E. G. Journal of Polymer Science: Part A: Polymer Chemistry 1975, 13, 29.

(55) Plesch, P. H. Chem. Ind. 1958, 954.

(56) Kennedy, J. P. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. Appl. Polym. Symp. 1977, 30.

(57) Lewis, S. P.Project 1. Synthesis of PIB-Silsesquioxane Stars via The Sol-Gel Process  Project 2. Solution and Aqueous Suspension/Emulsion Polymerization of Isobutylene Coinitiated by 1,2-C6F4[B(C6F5)2]2., Ph.D. Thesis, The Univ. of Akron, Diss. Abstr. Int., B 2004, 65, 770. cf. Chem. Abs. 2004, 143, p. 173195., 2004.

(58) Jianfang, C.; Lewis, S. P.; Kennedy, J. P.; Collins, S. Isobutene Polymerization Using Chelating Diboranes: Reactions of a Hindered Pyridine with Carbocations Bearing α-Protons. Macromolecules 2007, 40(21), 7421-7424.

(59) Lewis, S. P.; Jianfang, C.; Collins, S.; Sciarone, T. J. J.; Henderson, L. D.; Fan, C.; Parvez, M.; Piers, W. E. Isobutene Polymerization Using Chelating Diboranes: Polymerization in Aqueous Suspension and Hydrocarbon Solution. Organometallics 2009, 28(1), 249-263.

(60) Kennedy, J. P. Cationic Polymerization of Olefins: A Critical Inventory; John Wiley and Sons: New York, 1975; pp 99-100.

(61) The Chemistry of Cationic Polymerisation.; Plesch, P., Ed.; Pergamon Press: Oxford, 1963.

(62) Mathers, R. T.; Lewis, S. P. Monoterpenes as Polymerization Solvents and Monomers in Polymer Chemistry.; In Green Polymerization Methods: Renewable Starting Materials, Catalysis and Waste Reduction; Mathers, R. T., Meier, M. A. R., Eds.; Wiley-VCH: New York, 2011;  pp 91-128.







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